Material defects and anomalies in the steel
and at finished components
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Material defects are unwanted concomitants at the melting of steel, the steel forming or the heat treating. Furthermore faults can occur by improper storage or subsequent processing. Material defects can appear in different forms.

As an example the following defects have to be mentioned here :
   non metallic inclusions
   to high surface decarburization
   bad microstructure
   surface corrosion
   mechanical damage
   surface defect
Examinations and micrographs to material defects and microstructure anomalies as well as their cause are represented under the following references. The represented pictures of defects are also partly found in the same form at other materials.

The represented examples don't have to lead to the failure of the material in every case. These are merely examinations of indications on the material surface and material insides as well as of structure anomalies, which differs from the standard.

At the enlarged views a measuring function is available. The measuring spots 1 and 2 get specified with the left mouse button and the distance between them gets computed on base of the magnification scale. An optical measuring point marking takes place on the screen by means of little measuring crosses. For the use of the measuring function you must activate Javascript in your browser.
Measuring accuracy of the different magnifications:

12,5 : 1          ca. 9 µm
50 : 1          ca. 2 µm
100 : 1          ca. 1 µm
200 : 1          ca. 0,5 µm
500 : 1          ca. 0,2 µm
1000 : 1          ca. 0,1 µm

The examinations are partitioned in 3 categories.

Surface defect
Topics : cracks , grooves , damages , slags , scabs and corrosion 

Internal defects
Topics : blow holes , slags , segregations and degree of purity 

Microstructure anomalies
Topics : surface decarburization , crystalline structure and segregations 



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